Heinz Muller Bmw and Bell Aerospace
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Note -  We are  lucky to have  Heinz Muller's
 remains of his   library here at SMECC. 

 We are attempting to put together a 
sketch of his life and  need YOUR  help.

Thanks  to James Anglen  to have the foresight
to buy these for us at  the Muller estate sale.

There are other books  and photos that may have been sold... please 
call me  or email  us at info@smecc.org if you got any of them too!!!


(Project No. FP-190)
Release Date:
May 1948

D. Singelmann and H. Mueller



Part I -Valves 1 
Part n -Development of Spoon-Type Pumps and Pumps Designed by BMW and 
Henschel (Dr. Barske) 5 
Part DI -Return-Wheel Impellers 7 

1. Pressure Stabilization in Return-Wheel Impellers 7 

2. Centrifugal-Lift Packings for Use With Return Wheels in High-Speed 
Propellant Pumps for Rocket Engines 8 
Part IV -Film-Cooling Techniques 11 
Part V -Test Method for Evaluating Self-Reacting Rocket Fuels 15 


Fig. 1 Hydraulic Servo-Controlled Valve 16 
Fig. 2 Improved Hydraulic Servo-Controlled Valve 17 
Fig. 3 Servo-Valve Solenoid 18 
Fig. 4 Servo-Controlled Valve 19 
Fig. 5 Bellows Forming Device 20 
Fig. 6 Improved Servo Valve 21 
Fig. 7 Improved Servo Valve 22 
Fig. 8 Cartridge Valve 23 
Fig. 9 Diaphragm Valve 24 
Fig. 10 Diaphragm Valve 25 
Fig. 11 Diaphragm Valve 25 
Fig. 12 Spoon Pump 26 
Fig. 13 Mixed Flow Pump 27 
Fig. 14 Jet-Pump Combination 28 
Fig. 15 Pump-Performance Curve 29 
Fig. 16 Pump-Performance Curve 29 
Fig. 17 Pump and Return-Wheel Impeller 30 
Fig. 18 Return-Wheel Impeller With Flow-Balancing Blades 30 
Fig. 19 Dual Return-Wheel Impellers 31 
Fig. 20 Pump With Friction Packing 32 
Fig. 21 Disk-Cuff, Packing in Contact 33 
Fig. 22 Disk-Cuff, Packing Disengaged 33 
Fig. 23 Axial-Cuff Packing 34 
Fig. 24 Lip Packing 35 
Fig. 25 Diaphragm Sealing Ring 35 
Fig. 26 Axial Displacement Seal 37 
Fig. 27 Centrifugal Return-Wheel Packing 38 
Fig. 28 Centrifugal Seal Packing, Side View 39 
Fig. 29 Centrifugal Seal Packing, Top View 39 
Fig. 30 Differential Pressure Packing 39 
Fig. 31 Rocket Combustion Chamber 40 
Fig. 32 Heat Conductivity Diagram 41 
Fig. 33 Heat Conductivity Diagram 42 
Fig. 34 Test Installation for Rocket Propellants 43 
Fig. 35 Electrical Wiring Chart 44 
Fig. 36 Water Tank 45 
Fig. 37 Test Cylinder 45 




Mr. Dietrich Singelmann attended the Technical University of Breslau 
from 1923 to 1927 , and received has Dipl. Ing. He was assistant to 
Professor Ehrhardt, University of Breslau, and to Professor Bernstein 
and Professor Martiny, University of Halle from 1928 to 1932. 

From 1932 to 1933 he was associated with the Ilo-Werke at Pinneberg 
near Hamburg, designing small reciprocating engines; and from 1933 
to 1938 he was associated with Siemens & Halske Werke (aircraft engines) 
designing aircraft engines and accessories. From 1938 to 1939 he was 
affiliated with the design branch of the research section of the Brandenburgische 
Motorenwerke, Spandau; and from 1939 in charge of the design 
branch of the Bayerische Motorenwerke, Spandau; later on in charge of 
the test and design branch of the rocket-engine manufacturing company, 
Zuehlsdorf East. Since 1943, he had been general manager of the Zuehlsdorf 

Mr. Heinz Mueller attended the Technical Universities of Dresden, 
Danzig, Braunschweig and Munich, and received his Dipl. Ing. in 1936. 
From 1936 to 1937 he was assistant at the Institute of Chemical Technology 
of the Technical University of Munich, specializing in the field of 
fuel chemistry. 

Mr. Mueller was associated with the BMW, Berlin-Spandau, from 
1937 to 1939, engaged in the development of reciprocating engines for aircraft 
and of combustion chambers for jet engines. Since 1939, he was employed 
as principal test engineer at BMW, Berlin-Zuehlsdorf East, in the 
field of rocket propulsion, and was promoted to chief of the test section. 

From 1943 to 1945, he was chief of the technical office for rocket 
engine development, and deputy chief of the rocket engine division at BMW, 

Ignition  An informal history of liquid rocket propellants
By John D. Clark
Intro Re John D. Clark ix 
Preface xi 
1 How It Started 3 
2 Peenemunde and JPL 12 
3 The Hunting of the Hypergol . . . 24 
4 .. . and Its Mate 47 
5 Peroxide — Always a Bridesmaid 66 
6 Halogens and Politics and Deep Space 72 
7 Performance 90 
8 Lox and Flox and Cryogenics in General 103 
9 What Ivan Was Doing 115 
10 "Exotics" 120 
11 The Hopeful Monoprops 131 
12 High Density and the Higher Foolishness 174 
13 What Happens Next 190 
Glossary 193 
Index 197 


Peenemunde and JPL
Von Braun started work on his PhD thesis (rocket combustion
processes) in November 1932. All of his experimental work was done
at Kummersdorf-West, an artillery range near Berlin —and the
Reichswehr paid the freight, and built up a rocket establishment
around him. When he got his degree, in 1937, he was made the technical
director of the organization, which was soon moved to Peenemunde.
There the A-4, better known by its propaganda name
"V-2" was designed and developed.
Very little propellant development was involved in the A-4. From
the beginning, liquid oxygen was the intended oxidizer, and 70-30
alcohol-water mixture (as had been used by the VfR) the fuel. And
Helmuth Walter's 80 percent hydrogen peroxide was used to drive
the fuel pumps. The peroxide entered a decomposition chamber,
where it was mixed with a small quantity of a solution of calcium permanganate
in water. This catalyzed its decomposition into oxygen and
superheated steam, which drove the turbines which drove the pumps
which forced the oxygen and the alcohol into the main combustion
The A-4 was a long range strategic weapon, not designed to be
fired at a moment's notice. It was perfectly practical to set it up, and
then load it with alcohol and oxygen just before firing. But the
Reichswehr needed antiaircraft rockets that were always ready to
fire. When you get word from your forward observers that the
bombers are on the way, you don't have time to load up a missile
with liquid oxygen. What you need is a storable propellant—one
Peenemunde and JPL 13
that can be loaded into the tanks beforehand — and kept there until
you push the button. You can't do that with oxygen, which cannot
be kept liquid above —119°C, its critical temperature, by any pressure
The Reichswehr was rather slow to realize the need for AA rockets
— maybe they believed Hermann Goering when he boasted, "If the
British ever bomb Berlin, you can call me Meyer!" —but when they
did they found that work on storable propellants was well under way.
It was, at first, concentrated at Helmuth Walter's Witte Werke at Kiel.
As has been mentioned, high strength hydrogen peroxide (80-83 percent)
first became available in about 1934, and Walter had fired it as
a monopropellant, and the Luftwaffe was immensely interested. Like
General Arnold, in the U.S. they could appreciate the fact that a
JATO rocket would enable a bomber to take off with a heavier load
than it could normally carry, and by February 1937, a Walter hydrogen
peroxide JATO had helped a Heinkel Kadett airplane to get off
the ground. Later in the year, a rocket powered airplane was flown —
again using a hydrogen peroxide motor. The Messerschmitt 163-A
interceptor used the same propellant.
But peroxide is not only a monopropellant, it's also a pretty good
oxidizer. And Walter worked out a fuel for it that he called "C-Stoff."
(The peroxide itself was called "T-Stoff.") Hydrazine hydrate,
N2H4-H2O ignited spontaneously when it came in contact with peroxide
(Walter was probably the first propellant man to discover such
a phenomenon) and C-Stoff consisted of 30 percent hydrazine hydrate,
57 of methanol, and 13 of water, plus thirty milligrams per liter
of copper as potassium cuprocyanide, to act as an ignition and combustion
catalyst. The reason for the methanol and the water was the
fact that hydrazine hydrate was hard to come by — so hard, in fact, that
by the end of the war its percentage in C-Stoff was down to fifteen.
The Messerschmitt 163-B interceptor used C-Stoff and T-Stoff.
The next organization to get into the rocket business was the Aeronautical
Research Institute at Braunschweig. There, in 1937-38, Dr.
Otto Lutz and Dr. Wolfgang C. Noeggerath started to work on the
C-Stoff-T-Stoff combination. Next, BMW (Bavarian Motor Worksyes,
the people who make the motorcycles) were invited by the Luftwaffe
to get into the act. Helmut Philip von Zborowski, the nephew
of the famous pre-World War 1 racing driver, was in charge of the
operation, and Heinz Mueller was his second. In the summer of 1939
BMW got a contract to develop a JATO unit, using the C-T-Stoff combination,
and they worked with it for some months. But von Zborowski
was convinced that 98 percent nitric acid was the better oxi14
dizer, as well as being immensely easier to get (LG. Farben guaranteed
unlimited quantities), and set out to convert the brass to his point of
view. From the beginning of 1940, he and Mueller worked on the nitric
acid-methanol combination, and in 1941 proved his point, convincingly,
with a perfect thirty-second run at the three thousand
pounds force thrust level. He even convinced Eugen Sanger, who was
sure that oxygen was the only oxidizer worth thinking about.
And in the meantime, early in 1940, he and Mueller had made an
immensely important discovery — that certain fuels (aniline and turpentine
were the first they found) ignited spontaneously upon contact
with nitric acid. Noeggerath learned of this, and joined the BMW
people in their search for fuels with this interesting property. His
code name for nitric acid was "Ignol" and for his fuels "Ergol," and,
a fast man with a Greek root, he came up with "Hypergol" for the
spontaneous igniters. "Hypergol" and its derivatives, such as the adjective
"hypergolic" have become a permanent part not only of the
German, but of the English language, and even, in spite of the efforts
of Charles de Gaulle to keep the language "pure," of the French as
The discovery of hypergolicity was of major importance. Running
a rocket motor is relatively easy. Shutting it down without blowing
something up is harder. But starting it up without disaster is a real
problem. Sometimes electrical igniters are used — sometimes pyrotechnic
devices. But neither can always be trusted, and either is a nuisance,
an added complication, when you already have more complications
than you want. Obviously, if your combination is hypergolic, you
can throw out all the ignition schemes and devices, and let the chemistry
do the work. The whole business is much simpler and more reliable.
But as usual, there's a catch. If your propellants flow into the chamber
and ignite immediately, you're in business. But if they flow in,
collect in a puddle, and then ignite, you have an explosion which generally
demolishes the engine and its immediate surroundings. The
accepted euphemism for this sequence of events is a "hard start."
Thus, a hypergolic combustion must be very fast, or it is worse than
useless. The Germans set an upper limit of 50 milliseconds on the
ignition delay that they could tolerate.
Incidentally, and to keep the record straight, Zborowski named his
propellants after plants. Nitric acid he called "Salbei" for sage, and
his fuels "Tonka," after the bean from which coumarin, which smells
like vanilla, is extracted. Considering the odors of the things he
worked with, I can't think of more inappropriate namesl
Peenemunde and JPL 15
The first ignition delay tests were, to put it mildly, somewhat primitive.
After a long night session, searching through old chemistry
texts for substances that were violently reactive with nitric acid, Zborowski
and Mueller would soak a wiping rag with a promising candidate
and spray it with nitric acid and see how quickly —or if—it burst
into flames. And they ran into a peculiar phenomenon. An old, used
wiping rag from the machine shop would sometimes ignite much
faster than a new clean one soaked with the same fuel. Their chemistry
laboratory furnished them with the answer. Traces of iron and
copper from the shop, as the metals or as salts, catalyzed the ignition
reaction. So they modified their 98 percent nitric acid, "Salbei" by
adding to it 6 percent of hydrated ferric chloride, and called the new
oxidizer "Salbeik."
The wiping-rag technique was soon supplanted by a somewhat more
sophisticated gadget with which you could drop a single drop of a
candidate fuel into a thimbleful of acid, and determine its hypergolic
properties with less risk of setting fire to the whole shop, and for the
next four years BMW on the one hand and Noeggerath on the other
were trying the hypergolicity of everything they could lay their hands
on. At BMW, where propellant development was directed by Hermann
Hemesath, more than 2000 prospective fuels were tried. And very
soon the I.G. Farben organization at Ludwigshaven started doing the
same thing. With a deplorable lack of imagination, Farben eschewed
code names at first, and labeled their mixtures with code numbers
The fuels that the three organizations developed were many and
various, but at the same time very much alike, since there was a limited
number of compounds which were hypergolic with nitric acid —
and available in any quantity. Tertiary amines, such as triethyl amine
were hypergolic, and aromatic amines, such as aniline, toluidine, xylidine,
N methyl aniline were even more so. Most of the mixtures tried
— neat fuels consisting of a single pure compound were unheard of—
were based on the aniline family, frequently with the addition of triethylamine,
plus, at times, things like xylene, benzene, gasoline, tetrahydrofuran,
pyrocatechol, and occasionally other aliphatic amines.
The BMW Tonka 250 comprised 57 percent of raw xylidine and 43
of triethylamine (it was used in the "Taifun" missile) and Tonka 500
contained toluidine, triethylamine, aniline, gasoline, benzene, and
raw xylidine. Noeggerath added furfuryl alcohol to Tonka 250 to get
"Ergol-60" which he considered the "best" hypergol, and reported,
somewhat wistfully, that furfuryl alcohol was readily available in the
United States—as it was not in Germany.
16 Ignition
As soon as one of the investigators found a mixture that he liked he
applied for a patent on it. (Such an application would probably not
even be considered under the much stricter U.S. patent laws.) Not
surprisingly, everybody and Hemesath and Noeggerath in particular,
was soon accusing everybody else of stealing his patent. In 1946, when
Heinz Mueller came to this country, he met Noeggerath again, and
found him still indignant, bursting out with "And BMW, especially
Hemesath, did swipe a lot of patents from us!"
Around 1942 or 1943 I.G. Farben shifted the emphasis of their fuel
work away from the mixtures they had been working with at first, and
which were so similar to the Tonkas and the Ergols, to a series of fuels
based on the "Visols," which were vinyl ethers. The vinyl ethers were
very rapidly hypergolic with MS-IO, a mixed acid consisting of 10 percent
sulfuric acid and 90 percent nitric, and the ignition delay was less
sensitive to temperature than it was with straight nitric. (This had been
a serious problem. A propellant pair might ignite in 50 milliseconds
at room temperature, and wait around a whole second at 40 below.)
Also, it was believed, practically as an article of faith, that MS-10 did
not corrode stainless steel. This was a delusion that lasted five years
before it was punctured.
A typical mixture, patented by Dr. Heller in 1943, consisted of 57.5
percent Visol-1 (vinylbutyl ether) or Visol-6 (vinylethyl ether) 25.8
percent Visol-4 (divinylbutanediolether) 15 percent aniline, and 1.7
percent of iron pentacarbonyl or iron naphthenate. (Heller had to
put his iron catalyst in his fuel rather than in his oxidizer, since the
latter contained sulfuric acid, and iron sulfates are insoluble in nitric
acid.) There were many variations on these fuels, vinylisobutyl ether
being substituted at times for the n-butyl compound. All in all, more
than 200 mixtures were tried, of which less than ten were found satisfactory.
"Optolin" was a mixture of aniline, a Visol, aromatics, sometimes
amines, gasoline, and pyrocatechol. The Wasserfall SAM used
a Visol fuel.
Several agencies tried to discover additives which, in small quantities,
would make gasoline or benzene or methanol hypergolic with
acid. Things like iron carbonyl and sodium selenide were more or less
successful, but the success was academic at best, since the useful additives
were all either too rare, too expensive, or too active to live
But nitric acid was definitely the winner. Many German missiles
were designed, at first, to use peroxide, but as the war went on, the
Walter Type XVII submarines threatened to use up the whole production,
and as the nitric acid work was so successful, the shift to the
Peenemunde and JPL 17
latter oxidizer for missile work was inevitable. During this period
many other combinations than those actually tried were considered,
and theoretical performances were calculated. These calculations were
not the early naive estimates of Sanger et al., but considered the combustion
pressure, the exhaust pressure, thermal efficiency, temperature
of combustion, dissociation — the whole business. Such exact calculations
are outrageously tedious —a single one done with a desk
calculator, can easily take a whole day. But Dr. Grete Range and others
struggled through them, considering as fuels, alcohol, alcohol-water,
gasoline, diesel fuel, ammonia, propargyl alcohol, and God only knows
what else, and as oxidizers, oxygen, nitric acid, N2O4, tetranitromethane,
ozone, and OF2, although the laboratory men were never
able to lay their hands on enough of the last to characterize it. And as
early as 1943 they were thinking of using chlorine trifluoride, which
before that had been nothing but a laboratory curiosity. But it had
recently been put into production — its intended use was an incendiary
agent —and they calculated its performance too, with ammonia and
with such oddities as a suspension of carbon in water.
One calculation made at this time by Dr. Noeggerath, showed that
if the propellants in the A-4 were replaced by nitric acid and diesel
fuel, the range of the missile would be increased by an appreciable
percentage — not because their propellants had a better performance
than the oxygen-alcohol combination actually used, which they did
not, but because their higher density allowed more propellant to be
stuffed into the tanks. This calculation had no particular effect at that
time, although the A-IO, a planned successor to the A-4, was to have
used the new combination, but some years later, in Russia, the consequences
were to be hilarious.
The oxidizer that was always a "might have been" was tetranitromethane.
It's a good oxidizer, with several advantages. It's storable,
has a better performance than nitric acid, and has a rather high density,
so you can get a lot of it in a small tank. But it melts at+14.10C
so that at any time other than a balmy summer day it's frozen solid.
And it can explode —as Esnault-Pelterie had discovered, and it took
out at least one German laboratory. The eutectic mixture with N2O4,
64 percent TNM, 36 N2O4, doesn't freeze above —3O0C, and is considerably
less touchy than is straight TNM, but it was still considered
dangerous, and Noeggerath refused to have anything to do with it or,
even to permit it in his laboratory. But the engineers kept looking at
it wistfully, and when they received a (completely false) intelligence
report that it was being used on a large scale in the United States, the
Germans heroically started synthesis, and had accumulated some eight
18 Ignition
or ten tons of the stuff by the end of the war. Nobody ever found any
use for it.
Another idea which didn't get anywhere, was that of a heterogeneous
fuel —a suspension, or slurry, of a powdered metal, such as
aluminum, in a liquid fuel such as gasoline. This had been suggested
by several writers, among them Tsander in Russia and Sanger in
Austria, and Heinz Mueller of BMW tried it out, using powdered
aluminum or magnesium in diesel oil. The performance was very
poor —the chamber pressure was 50 to 100 psi instead of the 300 they
were shooting for —due to the incomplete combustion of the metal.
But the other results were spectacular. The motor was fired in a horizontal
position against an inclined wall to deflect the exhaust stream
upwards. But the unburned metal particles settled down and decorated
all the pine trees in the vicinity with a nice, shiny, silvery coating
— very suitable for Christmas trees. The slurry idea was to emerge
again twenty years later, to drive another generation of experimenters
Experimentation on monopropellants (which were called "Monergols")
continued until the end of the war. In 1937-1938 a good deal
of work was attempted with solutions of N2O or NH4NO3 in ammonia.
(The latter mixture, under the name of Driver's solution, had been
known for many years.) The only result of these experiments was a
depressing series of explosions and demolished motors. And at
Peenemunde, a Dr. Wahrmke tried dissolving alcohol in 80 percent
H2O2 and then firing that in a motor. It detonated, and killed him.
The Wm. Schmidding firm, nevertheless, kept on experimenting
with a monopropellant they called "Myrol," an 80-20 mixture of
methyl nitrate and methanol — very similar to the nitroglycerinemethanol
mixture that Crocco had tried years before. They managed
to fire the material, and got a fairly respectable performance, but
they were plagued by explosion after explosion, and were never able
to make the system reliable.
And there was finally the propellant combination that the BMW
people and those at ARIB called the "Lithergols" — which was really
a throwback to the original hybrid motor tried by Oberth during the
UFA period. Peroxide or nitrous oxide, N2O, was injected into a
motor in which several sticks of porous carbon were secured. Nitrous
oxide can decompose exothermically into oxygen and nitrogen, as
peroxide does to oxygen and steam, and can thus act as a monopropellant,
but the experimenters wanted to get extra energy from the
combustion of the carbon by the oxygen formed. When they surrendered
to the Americans at the end of the war, they assured their
Peenemunde and JPL 19
captors that just a little more engineering work was needed to make
the system work properly. Actually some twenty years elapsed before
anybody could make a hybrid work.
Meanwhile, back at the ranch —
The most striking thing about propellant research in the United
States during the war years is how closely it paralleled that in Germany.
True, there was no American A-4, and high strength hydrogen
peroxide was unobtainable in this country, but the other developments
were closely similar.
As mentioned in the first chapter, GALCIT's first job for the armed
forces was to produce a JATO to help the Army Air Corps get its
bombers off the ground. And the Air Corps demanded a storable
oxidizer — they were not, repeat not, going to fool around with liquid
So the first order of business was choosing an oxidizer. Oxygen and
ozone, neither of them storable, were obviously out. Chlorine had
insufficient energy, and Malina, Parsons, and Forman who, with the
assistance of Dr. H. R. Moody, did a survey of the subject, considered
that N2O4 was impractical. It is difficult to say why, but the extremely
poisonous nature of the beast may have had something to do with its
rejection. They considered 76 percent perchloric acid, and tetranitromethane,
and finally settled on red fuming nitric acid, RFNA, con-
taining 6 or 7 percent N2O4. They tried crucible burning of various
fuels with this acid —gasoline, petroleum ether, kerosene, methyl
and ethyl alcohol, turpentine, linseed oil, benzene, and so on, and
found that the acid would support combustion. Further, they found
(hat hydrazine hydrate and benzene were hypergolic with it, although
(hey had never heard of the word, so acid it was. There is a highly
nonprophetic statement in the final Report for 1939-1940, Air Corps
Jet Propulsion Research, GALCIT-JPL Report No. 3, 1940. (By now
Malina's group had become the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with von
Karman at the head.)
"The only possible source of trouble connected with the acid is its
corrosive nature, which can be overcome by the use of corrosionresistant
materials." Ha! If they had known the trouble that nitric
acid was to cause before it was finally domesticated, the authors would
probably have stepped out of the lab and shot themselves.
Be that as it may, the report was an excellent survey of the field as
it was at that time, and contained sophisticated and accurate performance
calculations. The procedure had been developed in Malina's
1040 PhD thesis, and was essentially and inevitably the same as that
developed in Germany. One of the first compilations of the thermo20
dynamic properties of exhaust gases was published by J. O. Hirschfelder
in November 1942, as necessary raw data for such computations.
Malina and company started experimental work with RFNA and
gasoline as early as 1941—and immediately ran into trouble. This is
an extraordinarily recalcitrant combination, beautifully designed to
drive any experimenter out of his mind. In the first place, it's almost
impossible to get it started. JPL was using a spark plug for ignition,
and more often than not, getting an explosion rather than the smooth
start that they were looking for. And when they did get it going, the
motor would cough, chug, scream and hiccup —and then usually
blow anyway. Metallic sodium suspended in the fuel helped the ignition
somewhat, and benzene was a little better than gasoline —but
not much, or enough. It took an accidental discovery from the other
side of the country to solve their immediate problems.
Here we must backtrack. From 1936 to 1939, Robert C. Truax,
then a midshipman at the U.S. Naval Academy, had been experimenting
with liquid fueled rockets, on his own time and with scrounged
material. He graduated, spent the required two years on sea duty, and
in 1941, then a lieutenant commander, was ordered to the Engineering
Experiment Station at Annapolis, with orders to develop a JATO.
For the Navy was having trouble getting their underpowered and
overloaded PBM and PBY patrol bombers off the water. And he, too,
ran into ignition and combustion difficulties. But one of his small
staff, Ensign Stiff, while working on gas generators (small combustion
devices designed to supply hot gas under pressure) discovered that
aniline and RFNA ignited automatically upon contact. (Such discoveries
are usually surprising, not to say disconcerting, and one
wonders whether or not Ensign Stiff retained his eyebrows.)
At any rate, Frank Malina, visiting EES in February of 1942, learned
of this discovery, and instantly phoned JPL in Pasadena; and JPL immediately
switched from gasoline to aniline. And their immediate difficulties
miraculously disappeared. Ignition was spontaneous and immediate,
and combustion was smooth. They had a 1000-pound thrust
motor running by the first of April (these people were professionals
by that time) and on the fifteenth it boosted an A20-A medium bomber
into the air — the first flight of a liquid JATO in the United States.
Truax, of course, adopted the propellant combination, and early
in 1943, hanging two 1500 pound units on a PBY, managed to get the
much overloaded Dumbo off the water.
Other people were working on JATO's for the Navy, among them
Professor Goddard himself, whose unit was successfully flown in a
Peenemunde and JPL 21
PBY in September 1942 —the first Navy JATO. He used his classic
combination of liquid oxygen and gasoline, but Reaction Motors, also
active in the field, came up with an ingenious variation.
Reaction Motors, Inc., generally called RMI, was founded in 1941
by a handful of veterans of the Americal Rocket Society including
James WyId, Lovell Lawrence, and John Shesta, and undertook to
build a JATO unit. They first used liquid oxygen — all the ARS work
had been with that oxidizer —and gasoline. But they found that the
combination was too hot, and burned out their motors. So, as the gasoline
entered the chamber, they mixed it with water through a metering
valve. Combustion was smoother, and the motor stayed in one
piece. This was a somewhat less elegant solution to the problem of
combustion temperatures than was that used by the VfR (and Peenemunde)
when they mixed water with their alcohol fuel. The RMI unit
was successfully flown in the PBM in 1943. During the trials, run on
the Severn River, the exhaust jet set the tail of the seaplane on fire,
but the test pilot rose (or sank) to the occasion and set the plane down,
(ail first on the water in the manner of an old time movie comedian
with his coattails on fire, seating himself hurriedly in a washtub full
of water, with appropriate hissing noises and clouds of steam.
The aniline-RFNA combination had the one —but magnificent—
virtue that it worked. Otherwise it was an abomination. In the first
place, aniline is much harder to come by than gasoline — particularly
in the midst of a dress-shirt war, when everybody and his brother
wants to use it for explosives and what not. Second, it is extremely
poisonous, and is rapidly absorbed through the skin. And third, it
Ireezes at — 6.2°C, and hence is strictly a warm-weather fuel. The
Army and the Navy both, in a rare example of unanimity, screamed
at the thought of using it. But they had no choice.
Two closely interwound lines of research characterize the rest of
I lie war period. One was designed to reduce the freezing point of
imiline, the other was to make gasoline, somehow, hypergolic with
nilric acid. American Cyanamid was given a contract to investigate
stddkives which might have the latter effect and JPL worked both sides
of I he street, as well as experimenting with changes in the composition
of the acid. Besides their usual RFNA, containing about 6 per-
(TiIl N2O4, they experimented with one containing about 13 per-
(flit, as well as with a mixed acid rather similar to that the Germans
Wf to using, but a little more potent. One mixture they used contained
HM percent nitric acid, 9.6 percent sulfuric, and 2.4 percent SO3. (This
WHN very similar to the mixed acids used in explosives manufacture.)
And they, too, believed that it didn't corrode stainless steel.
22 Ignition
The obvious way to lower the freezing point of aniline is to mix it
with something else — preferably something that is as hypergolic as the
aniline itself. And the obvious way to make gasoline hypergolic is to
mix it with something that is. Both lines of endeavor were pursued
with enthusiasm.
At LPL they mixed aniline with orthotoluide, its near relative, and
got a eutectic freezing at —32°C. But o-toluidine was as scarce as aniline,
and although the mixture was successfully fired, it never became
operational. A more practical additive was furfuryl alcohol, for which
Zborowski was pining. Furfuryl alcohol comes from oat hulls and
Quaker Oats had tank cars of the stuff, which they were delighted to
sell to anybody who would take it off their hands. And 20 percent of
furfuryl alcohol in aniline reduced the freezing point to 0°F, or
—17.8°C, and the eutectic mixture, 51 percent aniline, 49 furfuryl alcohol,
had a freezing point of —42°C. And furfuryl alcohol itself was
about as hypergolic as aniline.
And to gasoline, JPL added aniline, diphenylamine, mixed xylidines
and other relatives of aniline; assorted aliphatic amines, and everything
else they could think of, and then measured the ignition delay.
But they never found an additive which, in small percentages, would
make gasoline rapidly hypergolic, with either RFNA or mixed acid.
One of their best additives was mixed xylidines, but it took about 50
percent of the xylidines in the mixture to make it reliably and rapidly
hypergolic—which took it out of the additives class, and made it a
major component. To make it more discouraging, there were no production
facilities for the xylidines in the United States, and although
Aerojet looked at a similar mixture' a few years later (in 1949) it never
came to anything.
American Cyanamid was having a similar experience. They started
with #2 fuel oil, diesel oil, and gasoline, and added to the particular
fuel aniline, dimethylaniline, mono- and diethylaniline, crude monoethylaniline
— and turpentine. Most of their work was done with mixed
acid, a little with RFNA, and some with straight 98 percent nitric acid
(White Fuming Nitric Acid, or WFNA). And in no case did they find
an effective additive. But they found that turpentine was magnificently
hypergolic with mixed acid or RFNA, and might well be a good fuel
all by itself. (And think of all those lovely votes from the piney woods
of the South!)
Aerojet Engineering was founded in March of 1942, to act, essentially,
as the manufacturing arm of JPL. The founders were von Karman,
Malina, Parsons, Summerfield, and Forman, all of JPL, plus
Andrew Haley, who was von Karman's attorney. And they started
P eenemunde and JPL 23
their own propellant research program, although for some years it
was difficult to disentangle it from JPL's.
Aerojet was the first organization to work extensively with crude
N-ethyl aniline, sometimes called monoefhylaniline, as a fuel. This is
almost as rapidly hypergolic as aniline. The crude or commercial
product contains about 10 percent diethylaniline and 26 straight aniline,
the remainder being the monoethyl compound, and its freezing
point is about — 63CC. All in all, it was an elegant answer to the
freezing point problem, but it was just about as poisonous as its ancestor,
and just as hard to come by.
But it could be lived with. The propellants for the Aerojet JATO,
in production by the end of the war, were mixed acid and monoethylaniline,
as were those of RMI's motor for the Navy's surface-toair
missile, Lark, whose development started in 1944. The surface-tosurface
Corporal, started the same year, was designed around the
RFNA-aniline-furfuryl alcohol combination.
Three organizations worked on monopropellants during the war
although the effort was limited. All of them concentrated on nitromethane.
JPL worked on it first, in 1944, or earlier, and found that
its combustion was improved by the addition of small quantities of
chromium trioxide (later chromium acetylacetonate) to the fuel. Aerojet
also worked with it, and found that it was necessary to desensitize
it by the addition of 8 percent of butyl alcohol. And Bob Truax, at
KES, tried his hand — and was almost killed when somebody connected
l he wrong pipe to the right valve and the tank blew. And finally Dave
Altaian, at JPL, tried a mixture of benzene and tetranitromethane,
which naturally detonated at once.
And then the war was over, and the German work came to light—
and things started to get really complicated.



US2816419  H. E. MUELLER PROPELLANT DISPLACEMENT GAS GENERATORS Filed March 7, 1952  Granted Dec. 17, 1957
Heinz E. Mueller, Kenmore, N. Y., assigner to Bell
Aircraft Corporation, Wheatfield, N. Y.
Application March 7, 1952, Serial No. 275,441

US2951336  H. E. MUELLER CHAMBER WALL CASTING PROCESS AND ASSEMBLY Filed Aug. 8, 1956 Granted Sept. 6, 1960
Heinz E. Mueller, Lockport, N.Y., assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of
the Air Force
Filed Aug. 8, 1956, Ser. No. 602,947

US3224192   H. E. MUELLER  MULTI-CHAMBERED LIQUID PROPELLANT THRUST DEVICE  Filed June 18, 1963  Granted Dec. 21, 1965 
Heinz E. Mueller, Littleton, (1010., assignor to The Martin
Marietta Corporation, Baltimore, Md., a corporation of Maryland
Filed June 18, 1963, Ser. No. 288,726

US3340588  H. E. MUELLER  METHOD OF MAKING HEAT EXCHANGERS Original Filed Oct. 19, 1960  Granted Sept. 12, 1967
Heinz E. Mueller, Littleton, C0l0., and Dietrich E.Singelmann, Buifalo, N.Y., assignors to the United
States of America as represented by the Secretary of
the Air Force
Original application Oct. 19, 1960, Ser. No. 63,691.
Divided and this application Dec. 11, 1962, Ser.No. 243,981

Filed Sept. 11, 1973 Granted Dec. 16, 1975  
895,331 5/1962 United Kingdom .......... .. 239/265.17       795,652 5/1958 United Kingdom ................ .. 60/264
Inventor: Heinz E. Mueller, Littleton, C010.  Assignee: Martin Marietta Corporation, New  York, NY.  Appl. No.: 396,261


Reviewers for Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, January 1-October 1, 1967





scan Weltraumfahrt Zeitschrif fer Raketentechnik 1958
Space Travel Magazines for Rocketry 1958


In Germany, the actual land of the "rocket pioneers"
hort often the view to certain far-reaching
Rocket plane were still
a matter of purely theoretical Erorterungen
and perhaps realized on the patient paper.
The amazement via the suddenly enthiillte
Existence just yet for utopian held Riesenrakententriebwerke
500000 kgf thrust
aircraft or rocket motors, the masterpieces of
Precision are, so it is not played, but real.
It belongs to the image of our missiles Congresses
Days, Dab of such Uborraschten their last
"Impossible, because ..." unterdrticken embarrassed and
the selbstbewuBte "it is accomplished" attitude of
Raketeure see at once in a different light.
It is just but wise if you from the Town Hall
The thought and also said the Senator Breiner
Wolters on the state reception for the celebrities
International missile and aerospace convention,
Yon of the Association for rocketry
was held in Bremen. Some
had previously probably due to a limited,
thought local meeting and muBte from
Be taught a lesson result: 250 participants
from the USA, France, Austria,
Poland and the Federal Republic fullten the representative sample of the
Golden Hall in the historic
Bottchergasse (at a public lecture event
zahlto one even 500), and the list of participants
read like an excerpt from a Who
's who of the international rocketry. At the
MUB end all parties, Including the
Representatives of the Federal Minister of Transport (for the
Questions of space in the Federal Republic
government officially your health director Dr. F.
Gerlach) have been clear to you today DAB
can talk calmly about rockets. Especially when
man - as happened in Bremen - a little distance
yon space dependent. And if it is only
at arm's length,

What for an ingenious prank, this meeting, the
astronautical KongreB in Amsterdam, the Air Show
in Farnborough and the nuclear conference in
Follow Geneva immediately let! For Editors
was to Bremen in any case only a
Hop, skip and who still do not come,
could, hastened to the personal invitation of the
Organizers still fresh in the memory, Yon
home kindly and encouraging to telegraph.
The clear winner this clever planning was
chairman of the company, A. F. State. Since
He 1952rang urn recognition of a new German
Rocket development, this time he managed to breakthrough.
The gathered on the eve of his meeting
Members drew from the consequences: From
the working group they made the - long ago
fallige - "German rocket Gesellschaft eV"
their chairmen they raised for presidents.
A mammoth program, the organizers had
wisely avoided. Yon twelve lectures
were six drives and fuels, six
dedicated to the High and aerospace research.
How much you bemuhte to always on the ground
to remain the facts, already showed for the
Offentliohkeit certain abendfiillende lecture
yon Dr. R. E. Kutterer (from the German-FRENCH
Research Institute), the answer to the question
should be: "Are we really on the eve
of manned space travel? "The answer
corresponded to the tendency of this conference: We are
possibly on the eve of the decision. Very
vigorously in the same line suggested during the
first technical meeting Dr. Walter Dornberger, USA,
1945 Chef Yon Peenemunde and German
Raketenzar that emphasizes yon those present herzlioh
begrtiBt and yon the German rocket society
with the newly created Golden Needle
was awarded. Immediately after the first
Sputnik ran at the Pentagon in Washington, 285 the
Expert only amiisierende "space proposals"
one; in fact, years will pass,
to be able to fly in space as today
in the terrestrial atmosphere. The space flight of
Present is characterized by DAB to
operating with one, 300-kilometer-long gun "
(So ​​far will the rocket with drive and
Control in general) and the missile,
therefore is more than a one shoved Fluggerat,
the groBten part of - over at the moon rocket

385,000 kilometers long - distance unmotivated
and uncontrolled fly liiBt.Yon hasty, so far
unfulfilled predictions and hasty sensational
Headlines Burnt aerospace engineers applauded
diesel'Darstellung eagerly.
The fact that you stay with the FiiBen to del 'earth and
with del 'forelock generic imagination of the researcher
anyway already the space (and therefore the kunftige
Can describe space) exactly, once again proved
Professor Dr. Hubertus Strughold, first and so far
only Professor of Space Medicine at del '
Air University at Randolph Field, Texas. Del '
Space has enormous dimensions, even in
our solar system ("and Texas is not mind"),
and the environmental conditions in
not everywhere gleiehformig. The astronautics
therefore needs accurate definitions of the room as
they Strughold Professor in his new "Spatiographie"
a kind of geography desWeltraumes, are.
Professor Strughold emphasized the medical and
ecological side del 'Yon him curled
Questions. "Venn del 'Astronaut the Shiite collapsing atmosphere
in his hermetic cabin (del 'Presenters
calls them "terrella" small earth) verlaBt,
MUB he know where we're heading. In Gespriichen
on the verge del 'Meeting interpreted Strughold
also the general question del 'event: Standing
we on the eve del 'manned space travel?
We mean by "eve", DAB manned space -
vehicles tomorrow or next week
start, then the answer MUB certainly "No"
loud; but we expect historical time raumen,
So with decades, then reads the
Answer "Yes". The Space Medicine verfiigt today
in any case already via the agent, a human
several weeks in space not nul 'on
Life, but there also healthy and arbeitsfahig
to hold. It lacks only the reliable, manoverierbare,
leistungsfiihige vehicle.
That the technical side diesel 'problems systematically
Processing and successfully showed einclrucksvoll
del 'lecture yon H. Schneider, chief engineer
the FRENCH RaketenwerkesS.E.P.R.,
Paris, via some aircraft rocket engines del '
more recent development. BefaBten Other Papers
(From top to bottom) Photo 1: Dipl.-Ing. H.
Grot.trup, Prof. Dr. H. Strughold and Dipl.-Ing.
H. Gart man. Figure 2: A. F. State iiberreicht
the golden needle of the German Rocket Society
to Dipl.-Ing. H. Schneider. BIID 3:
AF State riimmt Prof. Strughold as an honorary member
in the on society. Figure 4: Prof.
Zarankiewicz (Poland) receives the honorary member-

with solid fuel rockets, the thermodynamic
Behavior flussiger rocket fuels and Kernrakentenantrieben
(Corresponding to the popularly known as "Atom · '
rockets "are gelaufiger). Dr. Faust by the German
Weather Service treated the influence of stratospheric
Strong wind fields on the flight yon High missiles
Professor Ehmert from the Max Planck
Institute of Aeronomic the actual questions del '
Radiation auBerhalb del 'atmosphere. Prof. Dr.
HJ v. Beckhs film presentation via weightlessness
and acceleration effects (del 'High Point
the astronautical congress Yon Amsterdam)
joined in the practical way how lucky
rocket technical Erorterungen with more in
the future-oriented astronautical.
A lot of organizational work has been quietly
made. Professor Ehmert iibernahm the Presidency
Board of Trustees del 'German rocket society,
H. v. Zborowski entered the scientific
Advisory board, with del 'honorary membership
were awarded Professor Zarankiewicz (President
del 'Polish Astronautical Society),

whose presence emphasizes warm begriiBt was
Dr. Klemperer, USA, Prof. Strughold, USA, Prof.
v. Beckham, USA; received the Golden Badge of Honor
inter alia, yet Prof. Wernher von Braun, Dipl.-lng. L.
Zanssen and Dipl.-Ing. H. Schneider, France.
That the Members Del 'German rocket society
their presidents A. F. State spontaneously in
distinguished the same way, was exemplary nil '
the harmonious atmosphere of this circle. The
Conclusion diesel 'meeting shows what is important: With
the FiiBen to del 'earth, in with the mind
zirkumterrestrischen \ 'Veltraum, fiir with the heart
kiinftige a peaceful space. Under these
Character could also be a new German
Rocketry unfold.
The del program 'conference:
Community event with the America House
Bremen, Public Lecture: Dr. R. E. Kuuerer,
Weil am Rhein (German-Franzosisohes research

Institute): "Are we really on the eve del '
manned space travel? "
Prof. Dr. HJ von Beckh, Aeromedical Field Laboratory,
Holloman Air Force Base, USA: "Flugver-
~ Uche for investigation del 'human responses
to accelerations VOI 'and after weightlessness.
Ph.D., hab. E. E. Biichmer, Hamburg (Scientific
Head of del 'DAFRA): "On the thermodynamic
Behavior flussiger fuels and
their demand in the rocket combustion chamber "_.
Prof. Dr. A. Ehmert, Weillenau / Ravensburg (Max-
Planck Institute for Aeronomy): "Strahlungsverhaltnisse
au13erhalb del 'air layer'.
Dr. H. Faust, Offenbach (German Weather Service):
"Beeinfiussung the 'flight of long-range missiles by
stratospheric strong wind fields. "
Dipl.-Ing. H. Gottrup, Pforzheim: "From the work
of the German rocket collective in del 'Soviet-
Union ".
Dipl.-Phys. B. Heim, NortheimjHann. "Comparisons
the principle del 'Dynamic contrabary
with the rocket principle. "
H. J. Iiiiokert; KematenjTirol, Austria: "Tasks
Astronautical Societies ".
Dipl.-Ing. H. Schneider, France (engineer s
Chef de la "S.E.P.R."): - "Services and Components
Franzosischer rocket engines ".
Dipl.-Ing. Scholze, Stuttgart (Bolkow-Entwieklungen
K. G.): "rockets".

Prof. Dr. H. Btrughold, Air University, School of
Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, USA:
"Geography of outer space: Spatiographie".
International Conference in Essen
The German Society for rocketry and
Aerospace Association (formerly Society fui 'Weltj' (t ~ bmforschung
e.V.) has Btuttgm · t to an International
Conference via rocketry and AstTOnautik
invited for food. The conference will
from 23 to 25 Okiober 1958 at home del 'technology
instead. The Tagungsburo located. in the. Vestibule of the
Vortraqssaals A and is from October 23 at 8.30 clock,
opened. The Tagungsbeitmg is £ 18, - (Mitqlieder
DM 10, -), the uierden subscriber cards
zuqesandt after Ubenoeieunq of Beiraqes. Appli-

Dr. W. T'rommsdorf], Aachen (German Research Institute
fiir Luftfahrt eV, Institute for Applied
Gas dynamics): "Neuel'e development trend del '
Solid rocket ".
Dr. ' F. WinteTbel'g, Hamburg-Geesthacht (Society
for nuclear energy, Hamburg, research reactor
Geesthacht): "The achievement of Ausstromgeschwindigkeiten
to 20 OQO mjs by isothermal
Expansion in nuclear missiles. "
tion ioird to spiitesten "15 Okiober requested, since a
T'eilnehmerliste to ioerden zusammenqesiellt. On del '
EToffnungsveranstaltung 23.0ktober at 10.00 clock,
speak. Bundesoerkehrsminister Dr. H. C. Seebohm,
Oberbiirqermeister W. Nieswandt, Prof. Dr. Eugen
Siinqer and Dr. R. Merten. The Proqramm looks
17 Vortriiqe with Vortraqenden. from 7 States VOI '. The
Jahreslunuptoersammlumq was for the 24th Okiober,
11.15 clock, convened. Auf3enlemfindet AM23. Olctober,
20h00, einGesellschaftsubend, am24.0ktob € 1 ×, 19:30
Clock, a film evening. Anfmgen answered the
Secretariat: Btuttgm · t-Zuffenhausen, N euensteiner
Btmf3e 19

{] Bud 6: Prof. Dr. H. J. von Beckh during his
Lecture in Bremen.




Some Of Heinz Muller's Books that are in the
SMECC Library - Many mention Heinz  by name.

viking-cover_1.jpg (149880 bytes)  adventure-in-spacetravel.jpg (398908 bytes)  heinz_propulsion3.jpg (519942 bytes) 

 heinz_14.jpg (49180 bytes)  heinz_13.jpg (94300 bytes)  heinz_11.jpg (5223 bytes)  heinz_12.jpg (106691 bytes)

 amer-rocket-soc-25-annv-heinz_muller-chicago 1955-GE.gif (333709 bytes)  

American Rocket Society 
25th Anniversary Annual Meeting
Chicago Nov. 13-16, 1955



heinz-muller-amer-rocket-soc-dec-3-6_1957-hotel statler-NY-BELL.gif (292672 bytes)

American Rocket Society 
New York - Hotel Statler
Chicago Dec. 3-6 1957



Have since the publication of the last Hefies. three grof3e astronauiische and raketeniechmische meetings
occurred. Yom September 26 to 29 gathered. Members and friends of Deutechen. Arbeiisqemeinschaft
e for rocket technology to V. 5 Jahresiaqumq in Oldenburg. Yom October 5 to 12 found in
Barcelona held the 8th International Asironautische Kongref3. Yom October 25 to 27 led the Gesellschajt
for Space Research Association (now German Society for rocketry and space) their
9th Annual General Meeting by in Frankfurt. We report dariiber in chronoloqischer Eolqe.

26 - 29. September 1957

5th Annual Meeting of the German Arbeitsgemeinschait iiirRaketentechnik

Die beautiful, groBziigig furnished Weser-Ems-Halle in Oldenburg_bot the impressive framework
. m ~ n for the annual meeting in 1957 and 5th Annual General Meeting
of the German Association
fiir Raketentechriik eV Bremen.
Despite the wave of influenza A. Chairman could Staatsauf the solemn OPENING on September 28 in
KongreBsaal the Weser-Ems-Halle approximately 250 'I'eilnehmer
begriiBen the conference, including representatives

several federal ministries, representatives of the Lander governments,
the presidents of the district of
Oldenburg, Oberbiirgermeister, City Manager and
Kammerer city of Oldenburg, representatives of universities
and ministries, the military, the federal air protection,
GfW, of the Committee on Funkor
tion, the VDI, the Lufthansaschnle Bremen, the
Aerospace industry, and also numerous' I'eilnehmer
of the economy and many press and radio reporting.
As in any Y ear, the Company DISCLAIMER OF
sent to several important lectures to the program
nioht to iiberlasten and enough time fiir discussions
and personal conversations can be.
On September 27, 20.00 clock, said Dipl.-Ing.
H. Gart man in KongreBsaal via "rocket today
and tomorrow ", fiir with slides and films,
a wide Horerkreis, The technical meeting on pre-


Blld 1 (top): opening ceremony in Kongrellsaal
the Weser-Ems-Halle. nuu 2 (left): Dr. R.
Kutterer conducted the first technical meeting.


afternoon of September 28 led Dr.-lng. R. Kutterer.
The speakers were: Dr. A. FACTS about "Ba.llistik vertical
Raketenflugbalmen "Dipl.-Ing. E. Mohr about
"Feststoffra.keten" (with two application examples)
Dr. Biichsier "to fuel choice for the meteorological
Rocket ", Prof. Dr. A. Ehmert tibet" New
Results in del 'chief research with rockets ".
Headed the technical meeting on the afternoon of this day
Dr. Biichmer. It spraehen: Dipl.-Ing. H. Schneider,
Paris, tibet "details of del 'FRENCH rocket development"
(With Liehtbildern and very
s ch on en movies) and Dr. Kuiterer about "problems
urn the earth satellites and its wissenschaftliohe
Importance ".
On the evening of that day were gathered together the 'I'eilnehmer
to a good successful Cesellscbaftsabend
in Kongrefssaal,
The second 'I'ag the' I'agung was place exclusively versehiedenen
Sessions and practical demonstrations of
dedicated van missiles. In the morning: Board meeting,
Advisory Board meeting, Gesellsehafterversammlung
missile production GmbH, Giessen,
Board of Trustees meeting. AnsehlieBend were re-
, Kers of the meeting, the Board of Trustees, del 'Advisory Council,
del 'Board and some prominent participants
festlioh received by the city of Oldenburg,

In the afternoon, after a visit to the
historical Ammerlander farmhouse in bathroom
Zwischenahn Vorfuhrung a different 01 -
spruhraketen place on the Zwischenahner.
Bcgrulsungstelegramme and Gluck wishes met
oin by: Professor Dr. Hubertus Strughold, Dipl.-Ing. ,
Heinz Mueller, Buffalo, Dr. Steinhoff, Santa Barbara, (~
. M. v. Zubaty, Washington, Osterreiehische Gesellsehaft
for Space Research, Dr. Irene Sanger
BI'edt, Stuttgart, Professor Dr. Lutz, Braunschweig,
Dr. F. Gedach, Bonn, Dipl.-lng. L. Bolkow, Stuttgart,
Professor Dr. Agatz, Dipl.-lng. H. v. Zborouiski
and Others
The Board del 'society belong jctz.t to:
A. F. State, first chairman; Chief engineer. F. Schade
and lng. Lanqkriir, vice-chairman;
R. Haber, font Fuhrer; R. Schoefer, cash manager;
lug. Birkensiock, techniseher conductor; Dr. E. Biichmer,
Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board. Dern
Trustees belong to, inter alia: the cities of Bremen,
Oldenburg, Cuxhaven and representatives del 'Flugzeugund
Zubehorindustrie. As Ehr'enmitgliedel 'were
ncu chosen: City of Oldenburg, F. C. Durant Ill "
Dr. Steinhoff, Commercial Inspector H. Urban, in the
Blld. I: 'single-stage launch of the prototype del
meteorological rocket.

Figure 4 (left): Dipl.-Ing. H.
Schneider gave a much-publicized
Presentation via the
Activity. del 'SEPR. Billl 5:
(right) · Professor Dr. A.
Ehmert spoke via new results
del 'chief research
Blld 6 (below): Frederick Durant,
President of earlier del '
International Astronautical
Federation, met with
his wife punctually to
Annual General Meeting in
Bremen. Yon reehts: Fred
C. Durant III, Mrs. Durant,
Ms. State, Chairman of A.
State on the airfield in
Bremen to del 'arrival
del 'machine from the USA.
The Begrii13ungwar cordially.

Scientific Advisory Board were newly chosen: Prof.
Dr. A. Ehmert, Dr. Kutterer, Dipl.-Ing. H. Schneider,
Dr. Werres, Dipl.-Ing. Mohr, Dipl.-Ing. Daihe. Ais
an13erordentliches Beiratsrnitglied was chosen
Councillor H. Bohlken, Senator for Economics,
Bremen. The city of Bremen, fiir economy
and Senator for: Bildnngswesen under startled the Conference financially.

Attended by del 'board meeting on 29 September
Z Lull the first time the new Beiratsrnitglieder part.
Chairman of State spoke via the tasks and
Objectives and further technical work del 'society,
These VOl'allem heard the further development
and testing del 'Olspruhraketen and del'
meteorologisehen rocket. For the work of del '
meteorologisehen rocket Prof. Ehmert is federfiihrend.
It is urn a two-stage solid-fuel rocket.
At del 'Jahreshanptversammlung, the nul' fiir members
was zuganglioh, attended by approximately 100 members
in part. The company had at the time del 'meeting
327 members. Particularly interesting is the
Grow del 'investments: 1955-1956: DM
1200 - 1956 to 1957: DM 10,000, -; yon 1952 to
1957 a total of DM 125,000 - fiir Gerato and trials
(Including del 'in-kind donations).
The conference was very successful, The GeseHschaft
optirnistisch looks to the future.


Objective List of German and Austrian Scientists.

(1,600 “Scientists”) Joint Intelligence Objectives  German_and_Austrian_Scientists_Interrogated
Agency. 2 January 1947.

Heinz is somehow listed as working with Bomb Sights,  but in other reports  
listed as rockets. We can assume this entry in this  list  is in error.

Did Heinz Muller have any
thing to do  on the rockets  for 

Adventure of
. Space travel
materials created which the gravity oscillations dur 11
leave, ie substances that are weightless. So I'll have
Kerper establish that regardless of the Anziehungskr II
the Weltkorper float in space and their Besohleun •
tions received by the Weltkorpern. Noeh wiohtig r
but was, Dab them in the space of "directional thrust" ALH
Tool for Verfiigung stood. This was nothing andor
as the application of RiickstoBprinzips. It is for di (
amazing imagination of Kurd Lasswitz denote 1,
he Dab this s important factor of the later development
has already anticipated at that time. Some of that waS
In 1897 only in his imagination le bte. Inzwisohen Wid.
become sensitivity: wireless telegraphy, the Tel _
phony, the Bildiibertragung, television, the "R _
Pulsor. "Other blie b until now unsolved or is unlos bar '
as the weightless material, the Repulsit, the sore 1'-
same Retrospectively, with the one in the past
may look the amiisante Tastkunst the Martier, di
Slides and rolling Stra13en.
Helmut von Zborowski discussed with his fellow students
Eugen Sanger mainly the Riiokstoli.
drive, the two most interested. In Oberth's first work
they soon find more suggestions and di
Possibility, by attributed their problems themselves. Del '
Way of the literary imagination in the niichterno
Realm of rocket flight technique is difficult durohdringlichen by a
Wire entanglement of many mathematical equations
While Sanger on the path with the
Study continues the flight sciences, devotes SiOH
Zborowski initially transiently the water line construction.
In January 1934, he found his life's work; he
goes to the aircraft engine of BMW
in Miinchen. It is a fateful EntschluB, because in
these works is the young, imaginative graduate
Engineer gro13er importance ascend.
Always strong now tie him problems del 'engine research.
After two years, he transferred by BMW
Aeronautical Research Institute in Braunschweig. Professor
Dr. A. Busemann has requested it. He is Deputy
Department head in the gas-dynamic Institut del '
Research Institute, and soon after the Priifstandsleiter
AuBenstelle Dare, the Eugen Sanger with the means of
Air Ministry built on the heath. Here
he renewed his friendship with the man and country
leads with him many evening and nocturnal Fachgesprache,
from which gradually to new ideas, the
Rocket Trie bwer ken emerge.
Also Zborowski acquires very quickly the German Staatsbiirgerschaft.
When the missile tests on the new Priifstand
are underway in Dare, he returns to the Bavarian
Motor works Zuriick to now his plans in the
industrial research and development put into action.
The Bavarian Motor Works had at the turn of
1938/1939 from the Ministry of Aviation to order
to the development of rocket engines for remote-controlled
Get bullets and fast airplanes and
began unverziiglich for suitable Personliehkeiten
umzutun for the new development branch. One
remembered Helmut von Zborowski, del 'already in
Miinchner engine plant of the company had been tatig and
now rocket-technical research in Braunschweig
Abschatzenden Del 'successful young engineer sharply with the
View brings an impressive number of patents
with. turned to the new He has an unusually clear
Idea of ​​what he will do now. His mental
Superiority, which is often interpreted it as arrogance,
15 * 227
Is fiir employees often almost unbearable, however succeed
it his Liebenswiirdigkeit always, the resentment wrinkles on
their foreheads to smooth again. Concerns and objections
he maintains with friendly lassiger gesture aside
to push. He refreshes others opinions are valid and sets but
mostly by its own. His inflexibility makes the
Directors occasionally ratios, his work ethic rubs
with others. His sarcasm is atzend as the nitric acid,
with which he works. If he imperceptibly corners of the mouth
ironically pulls down and with half-closed eyes
smilingly quietly says, "Go's, Leiteln, you're's me a few
sehrage Fi.irsten ", then it is serious, and the designers and
Test engineers rub together, and work
goes on smoothly.
In the summer of 1939, before the re-entry, berat
Helmut von Zborowski the BMW Group in the planning
and construction of the Raketenprufstande, the built in quick succession
be. Del 'Group owns north of Berlin, a
suitable terrain. There are surrounded by dense markischen
Pine forest near the villages Basdorf and Ziihlsdorf
which the company gehorenden Niederbarnimer Flugmotorenwerke.
In a remote, untapped
Corner of weitlaufigen Gelandes you had the Prufstan
de fi.ir the turbine jet works another development department
accommodated. Of which is now a part
separated and additionally by security personnel through a fence
secured. This is where the ten coarse Raketenprufstande
by Helmut von Zborowski. Only those who the blue
Show Special passes with the rough red letter "R"
can the secret area may enter.
During fall the tall pines at Zuhlsdorf to the
mighty Betonkldtzen flat crouched in the sand markisehen
To make Prufstande place, while in the RGelande
Construction workers, pipe fitters, electricians, Schweiber,
Kabelleger and specialists in all branches mogliohen del '
Technology start in three layers to build verfaBt
Zborowski in Spandau development work of BMWKonzerns
a scientific report, del 'the application areas
the new special engines gegeniiber
the classic propeller drives clearly mark.
He realized a favorite thoughts; he
propagates the "nitric acid as the best source of oxygen
for Fliissigkeitsraketen.
This is a crucial fact. Already Sanger had in
his book "rocket flight technique" the high percentage
Nitric acid as one of the mogliohen oxygen carriers of
Rocket propellant combinations mentioned. He himself, however,
had stayed with fliissigen oxygen when he own
practical missile tests took. Another
Oxidizer for rocket engines had in April 1933, the
Kiel engineer Hellmuth Walter "discovered", the then
the Germania shipyard was tatig and turbines fiir underwater propulsion
developed. The hydrogen peroxide,
its use as a fuel Walter the electric-
Proposed mechanical works in Munich, was then
nati.irlich already a well known and much used
Fabric. In highly dilute form it was used for the disinfection
of the mouth or bleach to the hair.
Looking the front of the high concentrations of themselves harmless
Liquid had, however, because of their known
Friability of a certain shyness. A small
Contamination with concentrated Wasserstoffauperoxyd
gefUllten Behalters usually sufficed, the whole thing exploded
to bring.
It is this property then led to the inclusion of
Wasserstoffsuperoxycls in the young rocketry. The
Decay brauehte only to be directed and controlled,
if you fast effusing from a chamber RuckstoBmassen
wanted to get. Although the resulting
Gas at a temperature of several hundred degrees Celsius
besaBen, was called the betreffenclen simple and unwirtschaftIichen
Missiles random "cold" engines.
They were "HEW" if you alcohol or hydrazine hydrate
injected into the decaying hydrogen peroxide.
Then, the hydrogen peroxide was exactly as oxygen supplier
as nitric acid or del 'fhissige oxygen.
Hellmuth Walter began in 1933 with corresponding
Preliminary experiments. Slowly he groped his way to the little-known
motor abilities del 'dangerous liquid
approach, which lost its terrors, when compared with
del 'NECESSARY prudently managed. The in on July 1, 1935
gegriindeten Walter works resulting in Kiel "Walter
Engines "were all on del 'basis of Wa ~ serstoffsuperoxyds
designed and constructed. Ends In 1936
Reaches 1000 kg of thrust. Was best known
del 'engine for the series of fighter Me 163 B of
Messerschmitt, which for the first time the speed limit
iiberschritten of 1000 kilometers del 'hour
could be.
As the Me 163 B reproduced with their same comet tail
the sky over Germany appeared and the pilots del '
bombers flying into Union confused, they wrote the
Year 1944. They had laboriously learned, with the explosive
'deal bottle in del. Thirteen years ago
fell del 'investigator Dr. Wahrmke and two of his fellow.
employees in an experiment in del 'Experimental Station West
of the sliding square Kummersdorf a serious explosion
to the victim. Dr. Wahrmke had hydrogen peroxide and
Alcohol mixed in a container in order to jointly
by a single valve in the rocket combustion chamber to
. Send That was nat.urlich tremendously dangerous, back-and-
again verfiihrt burning WiBbegier also prudent
Researchers to carelessness. Dr. Wahrmke was to del 'Gofahr
probably conscious of. He called on his staff, don
To leave Prufstand. They refused and stayed. The
Ziindung in del 'combustion chamber via wore abruptly
<Amphibian the connecting pipe into the fuel tank. A g.
waltige explosion tore the whole Prufstand.
Dr. Wahrmke and two of his staff were killed instantly
That was the first and only explosion in del 'rocket development
the Army Ordnance Office, the death toll.
Over del 'years were different Tarnbezeichnungen
for hydrogen peroxide used. It was called
it Aurol, auxilin or Ingolin. When "T-Stoff" it is schliefllich
entered the rocket history.
With del 'introduction del' highly concentrated nitric acid
Helmut von Zborowski had in 1939 a revolution del '
Rocketry launch ki: inside. Abel 'of the rocket engineers
was provisionally not ready with flying
To wheel lugs in the new camp. Man feared
the aggressive nitric acid, a water-clear yellowish
Liquid with terrible atzender effect. One drop of
suffices to del 'bloBen skin, a fear variable, difficult
burn wound healing. As del 'new' fuel '
schliefllich his qualities in hundreds of successful
Missile tests had virtually been disclosed, it was for
a shift del 'other, now also well-advanced
Developments too late. Therefore, it was in del '
German rocket development of the second world war three
groI3e oxygen carrier for rocket engines: the liquid
Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and the nitric acid,
Zborowski was not of approximately the nitric acid
come. He had the pros and cons very carefully
weighed against each other. This was not EntschluB, the
you could put into a sleepless night. Many
Months miihseliger calculations went about it. Inquiries
muBten be confiscated. What cost
Hydrogen peroxide, Flussigsauerstoff, nitric acid 1
What substance dignity in mass production be cheaper 1
Is nitric acid roughly manufactured industrially? The IG
Farben AG. could provide virtually any desired quantity!
What are the physical characteristics del 'ag-
aggressive liquid 1 One could in Chemiebiichern dariiber
look up, but where there were pipes, pumps,
Valves, seals, control apparatus fiir nitric acid, the
you giinstigster in complicated engines power to weight ratio
could use 1 Research and Industry
wiirden be jointly capable of anything relevant field for Verfiigung
to ask. The decisive factors were the thermodynamic
Calculations. They were promising.
Nitric acid having a high specific weight. One liter of
is heavier than a liter of water urn 50 percent. One can
So more nitric accommodate in the same rough Behaltern,
than about Fliissigsauerstoff or hydrogen peroxide.
The heiBt, the volume-based specific
Impulse of rocket Advised with nitric acid is better.
Theoretical evidence is usually only fiir the like-minded
Expert impressive. The skeptic will
be nul 'let iiberzeugen by facts. Attempt Serge
bnisse are facts. That is why Zborowski sends
to, in Ziihlsdorf with the unknown fuel Salpeterssure
to experiment. At his side is his first
Versuohsmann, del 'wieself1inke Dipl.-lng. Heinz Muller from
Both have the vague Gefiihl, DAB they put themselves in danger.
Abel 'they have no idea how Grots this danger in reality
is. As the experienced Ohemiker of Spandau
Zborowski work arrangements in Ziihlsdorf see
them are literally the hair on end. You chen po
on their Ohemiebiicher and einschlagigen experience in
Dealing with such a strong oxidizers. Abel 'they
also do not know how to nitric acid and methyl alcohol
can bring together and entziinden. "Ergo
whose "explains del 'incessantly cigarette-smoking
Zborowski with emphasis, "ergo the MUB to it
try ".
In a fully enclosed Aluminiumbehalter
four punch cut. A coarse rectangular in dor
Page, through which you can look into it. In addition, a
small round fiir the fuse, with del 'you want ziinden. And
on top of the lid for two more Einfiihren del 'two
By line # 1If pressed for nitric acid, by
Line No. 2 methyl alcohol. Nothing happens. The
two liquids mix. Female vapors
and yellowish-brown nitrous gases are visible. This is
everything. You can see the mixture of the explosive-like
Oharakter not. The container is now a sharp
Bomb. A spark dignity suffice, they explode to
bring. Muller MIBT the temperature: "This stuff is
warm ". Abel 'it does not does not explode, even as the
Mixing ratios are varied.
Del 'second Versuoh. Re-inject the two liquids
in a fine jet into the container. The rays
intersect. Abel 'time is at the same time a burning
Fuse into the container held. A moment of breathless
Voltage. No man can say at this moment,
what will happen now. If del 'container in the air
fly 1
A faint muffled bang Iaflt the experimenting
Engineers jump. Then swells scheulslioh
stinking, beiBender smoke from all Behalteroffnungen.
The klagliche flame behind you can barely see.
For the first time, a mixture of nitric acid and
Methyl alcohol geziindet!
The experiment is repeated. Ten times, twenty times.
Sometimes the Fliissigkeitsstrahlen ziinden, sometimes
do not. The mixture is hoohst imperfect, the fuse
only primitive tools. Zborowski has march exemplary
Happiness. Many dozen times later are the combustion chambers
fiir nitric acid and methyl alcohol explodes.
This time nothing happens like. The two liquids
behave so obediently as if it were bright
Beer and schnaps.
The restless spirit of invention Zborowski shapes the kiinftige
Combustion chamber fiir Salpeteraaure and methyl alcohol. The
unzuverlassige fuse is replaced by a powder cartridge,
a sufficient temperature in the combustion chamber
generated at the entziinden the fuels
can, the cartridge will rest of the combustion gases
out rage, the combustion itself is constantly and
without further Ziindung ahead.
Thus, it is thought, but how is the harsh reality
on the now completed production Doppelprufstand in
Ziihlsdorfer R-terrain look 1
Other employees have now begotten Zborowski.
In the experimental field Heinz Muller now acts together
with the ambitious Elmar Mucha. In Spandau plant
, the always friendly Hans Schneider a solid
Design department together. In the next room
makes the already graying Werner Singelmann on
churning merkwiirdige, intelligent missile projects.
Already on friihen morning rattles his unbekiimmert
loud Gelaehter through the glass swing. In drawing cabinet
Stacking the Entwiirfe. Since none of the
Project numbers mer ken can you einpragsame them
Name such as "Jaws", "comet" or "silver fish" given.
One of the multiplier holds drawings that already outdated
were before the last line was drawn to it. This
Draft received a unvergeBlichen name: "The old
Singelmann ".'s Name carries over to the gutmiitigen
Designer, although it "the old Singelmann" of clamping force
receives it with his young employees.
The fight begins. There is a double rings;
not only the brittle matter MUB in numerous experiments
Be conquered step by step, and the skepticism
Ministry of Aviation is to surmount. Zborowski
now does the same bose experience as Eugen Sanger
six years earlier with the Federal Ministry of Defence osterreichischen
in Vienna. The Forschungsabtol-
ment of the Reich Ministry of Aviation has an opinion
elaborated: nitric acid is fiir as propellant rocket
One day, the group leader is fiir jet drives in the
Reichsluftfahrtministerium way to Ziihlsdorf.
Zborowski is meanwhile warned by phone: Dr. Beck
has the strict prohibition for any attempt with nitric acid
in your pocket. In Ziihlsdorfer R GeHinde one is edoch [
well prepared.
Zborowski receives the Officer of the Minister with
usual charm. He's on his guard. Bever Dr. Beck
can open his briefcase to the fateful
Prasentieren to writing, he is to visit a
Combustion chamber experiment invited. Delighted says e ~ to.
The Prufstand 1 is carefully prepared. The black
Manometertafeln with the whites scales of MeBinstrumente
are labeled clean: combustion chamber pressure, Forderdruck,
Injection pressure, Kiihlmitteldruck, thrust.
Pressure regulators, control valves and pipes are by
Color-coded: blue fiir nitric acid, yellow for
Methyl alcohol, Griin for highly compressed nitrogen.
In the next room sum measures the relay. Switch crack, as
the Priifstandsleiter attempt a trial basis "blind" on,
There is no pressure on the Behaltern.
On the stable iron trestle behind the meter-thick,
light gray concrete walls depends clamped the combustion chamber.
They can through the slits, by double-
Geschiitzt bulletproof glass, watching good. Through the
Horn, which for Verstandigung space between the observer
and Pmfstandskoje serve echo the last
Harnmerschlage the fitters.
Now come Manner, the wart in the gleaming sch
Rubber jackets look like, in and heave divers
their tool boxes on the Banke. Window and Tiiren are
closed. The experimenter, Elmar Mucha, driickt the
Alarm button. On the roof of a Prufstands begins
Horn quack loud and penetrating. . Alert fiir
aIle r The Pfortner schlieflt the Tiir for R-terrain. Now
may no one in or out. Relentlessly he holds
with the Schliisselbund in the hand guard.
The master Simbal and Koslick clasping the thick
Hand wheels of the regulating valves. High Compressed nitrogen
gushes from the thick-walled high-pressure cylinders in
Side room with merkwiirdig ringing, Gerausoh in the
Treibstoffbehalter who sticks in concrete pits. But
long, then the pressure is equalized. The Manometerzahlen
stand on the gewiinschten number. .
Mucha druekt the button labeled "Ziindung"
down. From Diise the combustion chamber ride gray
Smoke with fine hiss. Button # 2: The fuel valves
open up, This is the crucial moment.
Explosion or Ziindeinsatz, which is now the anxious question.
Fiir the fraction of a second geschiehtnichts.Nur the Ma.
nometernadeln twitching nerves. The liquids Stromen r
Suddenly a short, sharp report. The fuels
who ignites the powder gases heiflen the Ziindpatrone.
A mighty cloud of smoke pours from the Brennkammerdiise.
Even grab Simbal and Koslick in the
Rader of the regulating valves. This is a work that force
and FingerspitzengefUhl required. Singing and ringing
gushes more and more PreBstickstoffin the 'I'reibstoffbehaltor.
The Forderdruck increases, the smoke cloud is long, from
the sharp hissing sound is echoing thunder.
VolIschub r The smoke clouds are gone, before the
Diise is clear and transparent of the three-meter-long
Jet of fire. He looks almost korperlieh, Only a slight tremor
and vacillation, an imperceptible comings and goings of
darker vibration nodes treason, DAB because drauBen
raging fire gases with incredible speed
The test time is measured in seconds. But
dreiflig seconds of this magnificent spectacle are as
ten minutes. . When the fuels are verbrauoht and the
Valves are closed, is apparently a long time
passed. Dr. Beck is greatly impressed. He driickt
Zborowski moved his hands: "l you begliickwiinsche to
this em ErfoIg. And I am glad you followed this path DAB
and now but used hydrogen peroxide
have. "
A fine smile plays around Zborowski lipped
Mouth as he replied: "What do you believe what you just
have seen, Dr. Beck 1 "The Representative of the
Minister senses the Faile. Hesitating he replied: "l
said it already - hydrogen peroxide. This clear
Flame, safe fuel use ... "
Zborowski leads to have become uncertain guest into the open,
where the fitters Thiers and Baer just the small remaining
Amounts of fuel out of the lines spiilen. From the
geoff Neten glands fall beady heavy drops,
pull the aIle small woman with Fahnchen to: nitrogen oxides.
Dr. Beck realizes he Dab just a perfect rocket test
with the verponten, unmoglichen nitric acid
has attended.
The official letter with the strict prohibition of all
Experiments with nitric acid is not ausgehandigt. The
Breakthrough, the direction for the rocket development
Bavarian Motor Works is uniquely determined.
One can fiir experimental purposes aufWasserstoffsuperoxydbasis
fall built Starthilfsgerat endgiiltig
Nonstop roll now yon to tank car with a high percentage
Nitric acid in the rocket factory.
Helmut von Zborowski aIle has its hands full, because
the rocket factory waohst as a tropical plant. From
the groups are departments. Zborowski is main-
department heads and draws as an officer in the Directorate a.
In Ziihlsdorf are ten well furnished Prufstande.
A leistungsfahige experimental workshop is available. The
coarse workshops in Spandau and Miinchen start
To deliver parts of the engine, the fiir the series of-Iagers
Me 163 B is determined. At the same time developed Walter
in Kiel for this aircraft engine to be Wasserstoffsuperoxydbasis.
The Reich Air Ministry wants "to
two legs "are.
Incidentally Zborowski still has time to technical improvements
propose fiir piston engines. Back in 1939, has
he a method for high charging and intra-en Kiihlung
yon aircraft engines worked. The commander del '
Hohenaufklarer it is, possible by a representation del '
Performance improvements made sehmackhaft. High
and fly to be able to, is del 'desire diesel' Manner,
which are in standigem hard use. Man is willing to
to taste fabulously promising method, as
the keyword "water injection" falls, it is the self-
for engine engineers of the time difficult veratandliche
Basis del 'improvement. Del 'commander roars on:
"Are you insane - with water you want my planes
operate 1 "Emport he refuses.
Now, the process in engine development is yon
BMW used. The progress is unmistakable. The
Academy fiir aviation research has noted
Also, the Office for warship building in the High Command
del 'Navy sustaining a suggestion
yon Zborowski. Is a method
for high charge yon diesel engines.
There follow a number of technical and scientific
Reports, lectures in the Ministry of Aviation and VOI '
del 'Academy del' aviation research, meetings of the
Heereswaffenamt and del 'Lilienthal Society.
Zeitgemafle leave "honors" nioht coming.
The War Merit Cross Second KIasse follows soon
first KIasse with Sohwertern and - briefly VOl'Kriegsende -
nor del 'proposal to the Knight's Cross of the War Merit Cross,
that at this time Wernher yon Braun in Peenemiinde
fiir the "V 2" has received.
In the fall of 1942, Helmut yon Zborowski married the
image beautiful, einundzwanzigjahrige Isolde Ottrnann that in
Missile factory yon Hellmuth Walter at Kiel had besohaftigt.
In Berlin, she had met. Walter loses a
Associate, Zborowski wins a lovely woman
he is faithful in good s and difficult years to the side.
Devouring Once again, for the last time in this all forces
War, Zborowski can a short holiday
begun, He ride, with his young wife loved ones in the
Styria to his J to indulge agdleidenschaft. Chuckling
he registered, he Dab on this honeymoon two
has hunted stags and chamois.
Afterwards, work with verstarktem pace.
At about the time when the combustion chamber fiir the engine
the rocket Jagers arrives in Ziihlsdorf, I will by
. Mediation of the Reich Air Ministry and del 'German
Research Institute fiir aviation research into the secret
R-terrain added. It's winter, and the Priifstande
are buried under a thick blanket of snow. Severity
Pave tankers for nitric acid and methyl alcohol
be sliding their way through the sprawling terrain.
In the gray concrete fortresses drohnt. AufPriifstand 3
rushes del 'small gas steam generator fiir the engine as
a locomotive ablaBt steam. On Priifstand 4
sputters a model combustor that soon their service
will have done.
On the Prufstanden 5 and 6 beyond the Shia ended up high
Sand Walles hammer nor the construction workers.
There the full thrusters will move. Further back
in the forest, hidden yon scarf-pines, drawing SiOH
already the foundations del 'Prufstande 7 and 8 from.
On Priifstand I, del 'right half of the roughly like an-
directed Doppelpriifstandes, graduated engineer Kurt
Sohr patiently his miihseligen series of experiments with the
peculiar differential piston engine of Zborowski. It
based on a grandiose idea: Part del 'in del' combustion chamber
combustion gases generated is used to call
the fliissigen fuels. This is a cycle, del 'Award
works when all sources of error griindlich
are eradicated. But even the slightest deficiency brings
the delicate GERAT out of balance. Then rises
del 'boost del' is supposed to remain constant, steeply, or
he falls. gradually from. Later makes a simple non-return valve
meek as a lamb in the gas line the device.
This device and as a mil 'the first lasting impression
of missile tests. I watch as it plctzlich
flies into the air with a tremendous explosion. The entire
Establishment of sehonen Priifstandes is destroyed,
within several hundred meters all the windows
del 'neighboring buildings fragmented. Only the
meter-thick concrete walls of the Priifstandes have the force of
this detonation was held.
A few weeks later the Priifstand is redeveloped.
Day and night have pipelaying and Schweiber worked.
New test devices are delivered. The experiments
be continued and completed successfully.
Nevertheless, the disaster happened in Peenemiinde West,
a terrible tragedy that a Mensohen life
and another cost the health.
The unit had been fully developed, so it Dab the
Air Force could be iibergeben. It should to drive
gefliigelten a glide bomb used. The small Sohr and
an engineer from the R plant in Ziihlsdorf judged the
Test pattern for her Vorfiihrung. As Sohr the cable
anschlieBen wanted to Ziindpatrone, it happened.
In the observation room, an engineer had playfully
the power switch wrapped. It was criminal
Carelessness. For thus was the electrical safety
Schniu by. gekiihlte Roketenbrennkammer [iir Solpetersiiure
and "Tonka" by the engine of the rocket projectile "X 4"
First Versuchsgeri.it [iir the Raketengeschofi "X 4" in operation
on BMW Priifstand in Berlin (1943)
Rocket engine of Hellmuth Walter, Kiel, for the fighter
Me 163 B, with a grof3en and a small Brennkamrrier
BMW turbojet with zusiitzlichem rocket engine
(Top left) by Helmut von Zborowski
circuit of the device operation aufler been set, which
safe Zimdung guaranteed before the fuels
were put under pressure. Now could before
Ziindung in the combustion chamber a Misehung of nitric acid
and methyl alcohol accumulate. The whole THE MONITOR
flew apart with tremendous Get6se. The fitter
hit a rough splinters from both legs; He died minutes
later. The engineer Kurt Sohr was seriously injured.
The combustion chamber, which I iibernehme in the summer of 1942,
is about one meter long. It weighs about twenty kilograms
and to generate a thrust force of 1,500 pounds.
Through four Dralldiisen is nitric acid, by
flieBen four other is methyl alcohol in the combustion chamber. The
Fire wall of the chamber is stahlernen fliissigkeitsgekiihlt.
Zborowski has now greatly improved the Ziindung.
In the search for other fuel combinations
- Thousands of firing experiments are carried out
been - he is disturbed ollen to a whole new kind of substances.
These react by itself spontaneously as soon as they
brings together. Meter-high jets of flame arise when
you a few drops of nitric acid in a bowl full of van
this en liquids fall feast.
Dr. Noggerath, employee van Professor Dr. Lutz at the
Technisehen College in Brunswick, called this
selbstziindenden combinations later "hypergolic".
Full of zeal Zborowski stiirzte with its chemical
Experts on the new opportunities. He is the first, the
working with such selbstziindenden rocket fuels.
It has become more cautious. Combustion chamber explosions
have, destructive force of Oerate disclosed. As
you can now best the possibilities of self-reaction
fliissiger rocket propellants scan?
Heinz Muller appeared an old rags in aniline.
Then he schiittet a little nitric acid dariiber. It
works beautifully. A bright red flame
ziingelt up spontaneously.
16 Gartmann 241
After a few hours in the X-terrain no cloths
raise more. Mucha dragging a bale
Cotton cause he has wheedled the storekeeper.
But the getrankte with aniline cotton smokes blob. Dbelriechende
Evaporate erfiillen the room. It is jinxed.
Swabs burn perfectly, gewohnliehe cotton burns
do not.
Chemists solve the riddle. Found in the swab
they tiny traces of copper salts · acting as catalysts
effect. This is an important finding. One can therefore
with catalysts selbstzundende Treibatoff combinations
. win You can wear reacting liquids
zundwilliger make. The next experiment proves it: with
a little copper salt impregnated cotton burns also
if you trankt with aniline and nitric acid darubergieBt.


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